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Understanding ocular torticollis in children (Abstract)

Ioana-Daniela Apatachioae


Abstract

Ocular abnormal head posture or torticollis is a frequent sign in pediatric pathology. The incidence is 5,6% in ophthalmological practice and 3,19% in pediatric ophthalmological practice. Causes of ocular abnormal head posture are: incomitant strabismus, nystagmus, refractive errors, palpebral ptosis, neuro-ophthalmological diseases affecting visual field. The abnormal head posture is adopted to improve visual acuity, maintain binocular single vision, center residual visual field with the body or for cosmetic reasons. According to the three main body axes, there are three categories of head orientation: head tilt, face turn, chin-up or down. The most frequent ocular causes of head tilt in children are congenital nystagmus, superior oblique paresis, dissociated vertical deviation, Brown syndrome, refractive errors. Chin-up or chin-down abnormal head postures are most commonly caused by ā€œAā€ and ā€œVā€-pattern strabismus, palpebral ptosis, nystagmus, refractive errors.

Key-words: ocular torticollis, abnormal head posture, head tilt, chin-up, chin-down